Chapter 18 of the agreement deals with work and is largely limited to general statements of principle. The parties reaffirm their obligations as members of the International Labour Organization (ILO) and their obligations under the ILO Declaration on Fundamental Principles and Rights in the Workplace and Its Monitoring (1998) (ILO Declaration). The agreement recognizes the right of each party to set its own labour standards and to adopt or amend its labour laws accordingly, and stipulates that each party strives to ensure that its laws provide for labour standards consistent with internationally recognized labour principles. They agree to try to accept each other`s rules and publish those rules and regulations in a timely manner to ensure transparency. Economic theory suggests that bilateral agreements such as the free trade agreement lead to the creation of trade between the parties directly concerned, but also to divert trade out of third countries and offset all the benefits. Bilateral agreements can also undermine multilateral agreements related to the World Trade Organization. Partly because of these factors, the estimates of benefits produced by the ICE and used by the government have been challenged by most economists who have engaged in Senate committees that have looked at the issue, some of whom have concluded that the agreement would reduce Australia`s economic well-being. Australia as a whole is heavily dependent on the primary sector and the main benefits of a free trade agreement between the two countries were seen as better access to the large U.S. market, but heavily subsidized and protected by Australian producers.
In particular, the national party in the countryside and in the region is firmly committed to extending the agreement to the export of sugar. The possible provisions of the agreement did not go as far as expected and, as a result, some sugar industry lobbyists, particularly independent Bob Katter, insisted that the free trade agreement be rejected. However, many, like Peter Beattie, then Premier of Queensland, still saw the agreement as a net benefit to Australian agriculture and supported ratification on that basis. Free trade agreements (FAs) offer a competitive advantage to Australian businesses. By removing and removing certain barriers to international trade and investment, free trade agreements benefit Australian exporters, importers, producers and investors. The Rules of Origin section describes the rules for determining the origin of goods traded to determine eligibility, as well as the method of determining the value of goods traded. The free trade agreement was ratified by the United States Congress with the passage of the United States-Australia Free Trade Agreement Act. Passed by the House of Representatives on July 15, 2004 by the House of Representatives by 314 votes to 109, and on July 15, 2004 by the Senate by 80 votes to 16 and signed on August 3, 2004 by President George W. Bush.
 For the United States, the free trade agreement improved the trade balance, resulting in a trade surplus with Australia, which increased by 31.7% in the first quarter of 2005 compared to the same period in 2004. U.S. exports to Australia increased by 11.7% in the first quarter of 2005 to nearly $3.7 billion. Agricultural exports to Australia increased by 20%. [Citation required] Chapter 4 deals with the trade in textiles and clothing between the two countries. Most of this section includes rules of origin for textile products and protection of the internal markets of both countries.